Tag Archives: aircraft

Japan’s Aging Air Force

18 Oct

Japan faces a big dilemma. It’s two main adversaries in the region, Russia and China, which Japan has several territorial disputes with, have already begun developing the next generation of combat aircraft and have begun massive modernization efforts while Japan has been operating the same fleet primarily made up of 200 F-15s since the late stages of the Cold War. It’s fleet is becoming older and increasingly more expensive to maintain. Finally, after a decade of shrinking defense budgets, the JASDF is getting a big budget with money for upwards of $8 billion worth of air power. While originally eyeing the American F-22 Raptor, Japan has had to look elsewhere due to the ban on exports imposed by the US Congress, which is a shame because I think that if any US ally needs a shot at getting the F-22 it’d be Japan. They need it. Instead, Japan will choose from 3 different aircraft. They are:

The F-35 Lightning II

The F/A-18 Super Hornet

And the Eurofighter Typhoon

Not bad choices. Any one of these aircraft should fair very well against most of what the Russians, Chinese and North Koreans have to throw at them. Japan has currently set aside funding for 40 planes but that number is certainly going to  rise significantly in the face of Russian and Chinese rearmament. They’re likely to choose one of the American fighters due to their military alliance with the US and they already work closely with the American military which uses the same parts and equipment so cooperation would be easier. If Japan wants to maintain stability in the region then investing in its power projection capabilities is paramount and this new fighter deal will go a long way to achieve that end.

Advertisements

The End of the Aircraft Carrier

17 Oct

Since WW2, aircraft carriers have been the premier method of projecting power away from friendly shores. Bristling with weapons and boasting more planes than some countries have in their entire air forces, aircraft carriers can cost up to $15 billion to build and operate and are essentially massive floating fortresses. For decades the carrier has reigned as the undisputed master of the seas but now there are many factors that threaten it’s supremacy.

The first issue is the global financial crisis. Even though it seems like the worst is over, there is still a long recovery ahead before the world’s economic growth picks up. With austerity measures being put into place in several countries, defense spending is often the first expenditure on the chopping block. Carrier construction is a massive undertaking that is enough to bankrupt most countries and developed nations like the US, France, and the UK may soon have to decide between operating an expensive capital ship or paying bills.

The second issue is that no one country rules the seas anymore. The days of post-Cold War American dominance of the seas are almost at an end and new challengers are appearing. China, India, Russia, Brazil and others are in the process of constructing capable blue water navies, often employing advanced submarine fleets and missile ships, that may pose a serious danger to a lumbering carrier.

Another problem is that more effective counter-measures are being developed for the express purpose of limiting the effectiveness of carriers. The most notable counter-measure being China’s DF-21 missiles that can travel at low altitudes at supersonic speeds and can strike targets up to 900 miles away. This weapon was designed specifically for the purpose of checkmating American carrier groups in and around the East and South China Seas. As of now, there has yet be an effective way of combating the DF-21 and the US is check-mated for the time being. A $15 billion ship can be crippled or possibly even sunk by a missile that costs maybe $10 million at most.

What alternatives are there to hulking carriers? Simple. Less expensive helicopter carriers if you expect  a need for amphibious operations. A small carrier loaded up with cheaper helicopter gunships could prove devastating in engagements that allow short range aircraft. Combat drones have also proven their effectiveness on the battlefield. Mid-sized mother ships that dispense endless waves of attack drones seem much more frightening and practical than a carrier loaded with  a few dozen $120 million fighters. Sometimes sea-based aircraft aren’t even necessary. Look at Libya. Much of the naval force deployed was in the form of cruise missiles fired by submarines while sorties were flown from regional airbases with no real need for a carrier to be involved.

One could argue that the time of the carrier is not yet passed and that the numerous threats arising are just little bumps in the road. I agree that there will always be a need for a mobile platform that is able to provide an effective moving base of operations for aircraft but the risks of deploying these huge ships to unfriendly waters may soon outweigh the benefits. Unless counter-measures are found and implemented quickly and reliably as the new threats emerge then the fate of these titans of the sea remains murky.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

14 Oct

The F-15 is a twin engine tactical fighter capable of operating in any kind of weather conditions and was designed by the renowned McDonnell Douglas. Their design was selected in 1967 to give the US military a dominant air-superiority fighter, which would become one of the most successful fighters in modern times with over 100 aerial combat victories and no air-to-air losses. The F-15’s first flight was in July 1972. It went through rigorous trials and entered service in 1976 and is expected to remain in service with the US military until 2025. Since it’s production, the Eagle has also entered service with the armed forces of Saudi Arabia, Japan and Israel. Originally envisioned as a pure dogfighter, the F-15 has been further developed into 2 upgraded models. The F-15E Strike Eagle which is equipped with more advanced avionics and electronic warfare capabilities. The F-15SE is a stealthy version, complete with internal weapons bays and radar-absorbent materials.

The F-15 was developed in the F-X program of the late 1960’s in response to fears that the Soviet MiG-25 Foxbat could outclass current American fighters. McDonnell Douglas beat out heavy hitters like General Dynamics, Fairchild Republic and North American Rockwell to snatch up the lucrative fighter contract. The Eagle’s design incorporated the best aspects of older combat jet aircraft like the F-4 Phantom and combined it with the best in new technology and advanced designs like the “look down/shoot down” radar that could distinguish low-flying targets from ground clutter, a new canopy that provided unparalleled visibility, and all-new avionics and computer information systems.

Being the first strictly air-superiority fighter developed by the US since the F-86 Sabre from the late 1940’s, the production of the F-15 also required an overhaul in the design of advanced air-t0-air weaponry. The revolutionary canopy and heads up display allowed the single pilot to conduct air combat and fly the plane as safely and effectively as possible. It can be outfitted with several types of missiles including the Sparrow, AMRAAM, or Sidewinder. It also features an internal M61A1 20 mm Gatling gun under the right wing.

The Eagle has seen extensive combat use, mostly by Middle-Eastern militaries in regional conflicts. The first air-to-air kill was scored by an Israeli Air Force ace in 1979 and during Israeli raids into Lebanon in 1979-81, F-15As shot down 13 Syrian MiG-21 Fishbeds and 2 Syrian MiG-25 Foxbats. F-15s served in the 1982 Lebanon War where they shot down 40 enemy planes, 23 Syrian MiG-21 Fishbeds, 17 MiG-23 Floggers and 1 Syrian SA.342L Gazelle helicopter. In 1984, Saudi F-15C pilots shot down 2 Iranian F-4E Phantoms. In 1985, F-15s were used in a ground attack role to bomb a PLO headquarters in Tunisia. Saudi pilots shot down 2 Iraqi Mirage F1s during the Gulf War. The Eagle is also capable of being equipped with a satellite killer missile and has performed numerous successful tests. The USAF deployed F-15C, D, and E models to participate in the First Gulf War where they accounted for 36 of the 39 aerial victories. As of 2008, the aerial combat record for the F-15 from all operators stands at 104 kills and 0 air combat losses.

Number built: 1,198

Unit Cost: F-15A/B: $27,900,000. F-15C/D: $29,900,000

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1: pilot
  • Length: 63 ft 9 in (19.43 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 10 in (13.05 m)
  • Height: 18 ft 6 in (5.63 m)
  • Wing area: 608 ft² (56.5 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 64A006.6 root, NACA 64A203 tip
  • Empty weight: 28,000 lb (12,700 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 44,500 lb (20,200 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 68,000 lb (30,845 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F100-100 or −220 afterburning turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 17,450 lbf (77.62 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 25,000 lbf for −220 (111.2 kN for −220) each
  • Fuel capacity: 13,455 lb (6,100 kg) internal

Performance

  • Maximum speed:
    • High altitude: Mach 2.5+ (1,650+ mph, 2,660+ km/h)
    • Low altitude: Mach 1.2 (900 mph, 1,450 km/h)
  • Combat radius: 1,061 nmi (1,222 mi, 1,967 km) for interdiction mission
  • Ferry range: 3,450 mi (3,000 nmi, 5,550 km) with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks
  • Service ceiling: 65,000 ft (20,000 m)
  • Rate of climb: >50,000 ft/min (254 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 73.1 lb/ft² (358 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.12 (−220)

Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor

7 Sep

The F-22 is an American built, single-seat, twin engine, 5th generation stealth air superiority fighter, and is widely hailed as the most advanced fighter ever created. While originally built for the purpose of dogfighting, the Raptor is also capable of attacking ground targets designated by friendly forces,electronic warfare and signals intelligence. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is responsible for most of the construction of the aircraft but has teamed up with Boeing Defense, Space and Security who makes the wings, aft fuselage, avionics and training systems. In 1981, the US Air Force began seeking out a future replacement for the F-15 and F-16 in response to new high performance Soviet fighter jets like the Su-27 Flanker and MiG-29 Fulcrum. The Defense Department sent out a request for proposals. Many companies participated in the design competition but ultimately it came down to Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics who came out with their YF-22 against Northrup/McDonnell Douglas and their YF-23 after a 50 month demonstration phase. The Secretary of the Air Force selected the YF-22 as the winner, favoring its greater agility over the YF-23’s greater speed and stealth. The F-22 as it’s known today had its first flight in 1997 and officially entered service on December 15, 2005.

The Raptor was two internal weapons bays, one on the bottom and two on each side. It has room for one short range missile in each side bay as well as six medium range missiles in the center. Up to four medium range missiles can be swapped out for two medium sized bombs or four small diameter bombs. It is also capable of carrying some air-to-surface munitions although it is unable to designate targets on its own. It has also been fitted with an M61A2 Vulcan cannon on the right wing with enough ammunition for five seconds of continuous fire. Amazingly, the F-22 has been able to close within Vulcan range during training dogfights without being detected. Also, each wing has two hardpoints able to carry extra fuel tanks or missiles when stealth is not a priority.

The F-22 is constructed using state of the art, heat and stress resistant polymers and metals. However, some of these materials are highly toxic and personnel involved in their handling must wear special protective gear. The aircraft is fitted with an advanced high performance engine of which the  maximum thrust is classified but is estimated at 35,000 lbf. An internal weapons bay is a key design feature which makes stealth and supercruise possible, giving the aircraft a top speed of approximately 1,500 mph. The thrust vectoring nozzles allow the Raptor to come in at extremely high angles of attack which has contributed greatly to kill ratios in war games and is a key strategy of the F-22. The aircraft possesses very little ground attack potential on its own since it has no forward looking infrared, laser designator, laser spot tracker, and no external pods to attach them.

Equipped with the most advanced and top-secret fighter software, radar, and situational awareness programs on the market  and with its stealth, the F-22 is able to operate much closer to the battlefield despite poor air-to-ground performance. Due to it’s unique electronic warfare abilities it’s also able to function as a mini-AWACS or airborne early warning and control platform. The Raptor fleet has already received the first round of upgrades in software since entering service and is on schedule to get the latest updates as they become available. The cockpits are all glass and designed to be used in conjunction with night vision goggles due to the lack of optical or infrared vision devices. In addition, the ICAW (Integrated Caution, Advisory and Warning System) allows the pilot to be a tactician instead of a babysitter.

The F-22’s stealth is due to the overall shape of the aircraft, the use of RAM (radar absorbent materials), and even things as minuscule as specially designed hinges and pilot helmets with minimal radar return. Previous generations of stealth aircraft were high maintenance, often requiring 100+ hours of maintenance per flying hour. The F-1117 Nighthawk required constant maintenance to its radar reflective coating and the B2 Spirit requires a climate controlled hangar which makes combat deployments overseas incredibly difficult. The F-22 however can undergo repairs like any other fighter and has a “Signature Assessment System” which notifies the pilot when wear and tear begins to degrade the aircraft’s performance or stealth capabilities.

Due to the lack of an enemy with an advanced air force, the Raptor has not been tested in actual combat but has participated in numerous training exercises and war games where it consistently outclassed other new fighters, most notably the Eurofighter Typhoon, during most engagements. In November 2007, Raptors were scrambled to intercept Russian bombers over Alaska. An F-22 was the first fighter ever to be aerially refueled with an all synthetic compound.

Because of the incredibly high cost per aircraft and delays in the 6th generation fighter programs of potential adversaries, the ban on exports, and the development of the supposedly cheaper Joint Strike Fighter program, there have been many calls to cease production of the F-22. As of now, the procurement cap for the aircraft stands at 187 aircraft, down from the desired 650.

Number Built: 175 (As of 2011)

Unit Cost: $150,000,000

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 62 ft 1 in (18.90 m)
  • Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)
  • Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)
  • Wing area: 840 ft² (78.04 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 64A?05.92 root, NACA 64A?04.29 tip
  • Empty weight: 43,430 lb (19,700 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 64,460 lb (29,300 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 83,500 lb (38,000 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 Pitch Thrust vectoring turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 23,500 lb  (104 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 35,000+ lb (156+ kN) each
  • Fuel capacity: 18,000 lb (8,200 kg) internally, or 26,000 lb (11,900 kg) with two external fuel tanks

Performance

  • Maximum speed: **At altitude: Mach 2.25 (1,500 mph, 2,410 km/h)
    • Supercruise: Mach 1.82 (1,220 mph, 1,963 km/h)
  • Range: >1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks
  • Combat radius: 410 nmi (471 mi, 759 km)
  • Ferry range: 2,000 mi (1,738 nmi, 3,219 km)
  • Service ceiling: 65,000 ft (19,812 m)
  • Wing loading: 77 lb/ft² (375 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.08 (1.26 with loaded weight & 50% fuel)
  • Maximum design g-load: -3.0/+9.0 g

Chengdu J-20

4 Sep

The J-20 is a Chinese built, 5th generation, stealth, twin engine jet fighter prototype developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force. It began testing sometime in late 2010 and is expected to enter service in 2017-2019. Development began with the aircraft in Project 718 during the late 1990’s and won endorsement in a 2008 competition against Shenyang.

There is currently little information available regarding the J-20 but there are numerous observations being made. The aircraft is noticeably larger and heavier than other comparable aircraft like the F-22 and Su-50 which means it is capable of carrying more fuel and heavier payloads. It is believed, to have a lower supercruise speed but with a greater range, and less agile than other 5th generation fighters. It is widely believed that some form of cyber espionage aided in the development of the plane. There are numerous reports of Chinese hackers attacking weapons developers such as Lockheed Martin, gaining terabytes of sensitive data.

It’s been fitted with a state of the art fly-by-wire system that’s been fully integrated with engine and fire-control systems. The aircraft features a fully glass cockpit with LCD displays and a holographic HUD which were previously tested on older Chinese jets. The J-20 has a large belly weapons bay capable of storing short and long range air-to-air missiles and two small lateral bays for short range rockets or missiles.

The J-20’s stealth features have been a source of considerable debate. Some defense analysts say that it’s shape is far better than comparable aircraft while others say that it’s worse. Some, in particular Kanwa Andrew Chan, editor-in-chief of Hong Kong Military News Agency, called the J-20 a 4+ generation fighter similar to the F/A-18 Super Hornet due to several shortcomings. Many agree that some parts of the design will make it difficult to remain stealthy from all directions. The aircraft’s role, rather than operating as a dog fighter, is likely to be as a heavy interceptor, used to destroy enemy AWACS. Due to it’s low thrust to weight ratio and low agility it’s designed more for range and speed but it’s unlikely that China will be able to develop the deep strike radar necessary to detect command and control planes or advanced stealthy aircraft so the J-20 will likely be relegated to a ground attack role.

It’s been speculated that the J-20 is a project designed to see how far the technological boundaries can be pushed like with the F-22 Raptor. However, it’s practical uses are undeniable. China’s major military competitor, the US, lacks sufficient bases capable of supporting the F-22 in the area to counter any attacks and its allies in the region have yet to deploy their own 5th gen fighters although they are in development by India, Japan and South Korea.

China faces several challenges in the J-20’s development. The most critical issue at present is developing a high tech industry capable of churning out the required parts, especially high performance jet engines. Until then they will be forced to import parts from Russia or use substandard engines from other aircraft. More updates will follow as new information becomes available.

Number Built: 2 (September 2011)

Unit Cost: $110,000,000 (estimated)

Available Characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 70 ft (21.26 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft (12.88 m)
  • Height: 4.45m (14.6 ft)
  • Wing area: 630 ft^2 ()
  • Max takeoff weight: 66,000–80,000 lb (34,000 – 37,000 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × 117S and WS-10G turbofans (prototypes); WS-15 (production) turbofans
    • Dry thrust: Unknown () each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 31,900 lb (117S); 32,845 (WS-10G); 40,500 (WS-15) (142 kN for 117S; 155 kN for WS-10G; 180 kN for WS-15) each

Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II

1 Sep

The A-10 is an American built, single-seat, twin engine, straight wing CAS (close air support) and ground attack aircraft designed by Fairchild Republic in the early 1970’s. It’s purpose is to destroy tanks, armored vehicles and other ground ground targets with limited air defense capabilities and is the first aircraft ever designed for the USAF for the sole purpose of CAS. During the Vietnam War, large numbers of ground attack aircraft were lost due to small arms fire, surface-to-air missiles, and low level anti-aircraft gunfire which brought criticism that the air force didn’t take CAS seriously. The US already had attack helicopters for use in CAS roles but they were ineffective against armor. Initial development of the precursor to the A-10, the A-X, began in 1966. The final prototype was built in Hagerstown, Maryland and first flew on May 10, 1972.

The plane was pretty much designed around the GAU-8 Avenger, a monster rotary cannon (the heaviest ever put on an aircraft) which can shred even the most heavily armored tanks and serves as the A-10’s main armament. The GAU fires depleted uranium armor-piercing shells! In addition to the death cannon, the A-10 is also capable of carrying a wide assortment of air-to-surface missiles, cluster bombs, rocket pods and laser-guided munitions.

The air frame is loaded up with over 1,200 pounds of armor and has the highest survivability of any plane in the air force, being specifically designed to be able to complete missions even after sustaining heavy damage. The frame itself was designed to withstand armor-piercing and high explosive projectiles up to 23mm. The aircraft has triple redundancy in its flight systems and mechanical systems to back up double redundant hydraulic systems. These safety measures, in addition to measures that I don’t have to time to go into or this post would be a few thousand words long, this plane is almost unkillable.

It’s received many upgrades over the years including a laser receiver pod that allows for faster and more accurate target acquisition, a new navigation system, night vision and safety measures. More recently, the A-10 fleet will be given new cockpit displays, computer systems and data links.

The A-10 first saw action in the 1991 Gulf War where it destroyed over 900 Iraqi tanks, 2,000 armored vehicles,1,200 artillery pieces and 2 attack helicopters. 4 were shot down, all due to anti-air missile defenses. It participated in peacekeeping over Bosnia and Kosovo and later brought the noise in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001 and 2003. 6 A-10’s also participated in Operation Odyssey Dawn during the Libyan Civil War.

                                                         

Number built: 716

Unit Cost: $11,800,000 (1994 dollars)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 53 ft 4 in (16.26 m)
  • Wingspan: 57 ft 6 in (17.53 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 8 in (4.47 m)
  • Wing area: 506 ft² (47.0 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 6716 root, NACA 6713 tip
  • Empty weight: 24,959 lb (11,321 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 30,384 lb (13,782 kg) On CAS mission: 47,094 lb (21,361 kg)
    On anti-armor mission: 42,071 lb (19,083 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 50,000 lb (23,000 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric TF34-GE-100A turbofans, 9,065 lbf (40.32 kN) each

Performance

  • Never exceed speed: 450 knots (518 mph, 833 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1,500 m) with 18 Mk 82 bombs
  • Maximum speed: 381 knots (439 mph, 706 km/h) at sea level, clean
  • Cruise speed: 300 knots (340 mph, 560 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 120 knots (138 mph, 220 km/h)
  • Combat radius:
    • On CAS mission: 250 nmi (288 mi, 460 km) at 1.88 hour single-engine loiter at 5,000 ft (1,500 m), 10 min combat
    • On anti-armor mission: 252 nmi (290 mi, 467 km), 40 nm (45 mi, 75 km)) sea-level penetration and exit, 30 min combat
  • Ferry range: 2,240 nmi (2,580 mi, 4,150 km) with 50 knot (55 mph, 90 km/h) headwinds, 20 minutes reserve
  • Service ceiling: 45,000 ft (13,700 m)
  • Rate of climb: 6,000 ft/min (30 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 99 lb/ft² (482 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.36

Grumman F-14 Tomcat

30 Aug

Back in the 1950’s, the US needed a  long range, high endurance interceptor to protect it’s carrier battle groups against anti-ship missiles. The specifications they set forward were a Fleet Air Defense aircraft with more powerful radar and longer range missiles than the F-4 Phantom II to intercept bombers as well as missiles. Both the navy and air force were involved in the design and testing process, often fighting over what specifications were needed and what weren’t which resulted in the heavy and lackluster F-111B put forward for the Tactical Fighter Experimental (TFX) program.

General Dynamics, the producer of the F-111 teamed up with Grumman to find ways to improve the aircraft and were eventually sidelined. Due to difficulties in making a “one size fits all” fighter, Congress allowed the Navy to pursue their own designs. Grumman gave the design better radar, more reliable and powerful engines, ground attack capabilities and improved missiles among other things.

Introduced in 1974 after extensive modifications and testing, the Tomcat was the premier air superiority fighter of its time with a 2 seat cockpit and bubble canopy that offered much better visibility than its predecessor, the F4. It was also eqipped with the revolutionary geometry wing design where the wings would sweep back for high-speed intercept but swing forward for lower speed flight to offer greater stability. Avionics and anti-aircraft armament were all top of the line and pushed the technological barriers of the early 1970’s.

The Tomcat served as America’s premier air superiority and tactical reconnaissance aircraft from 1972-2006 and with Iran’s air forces from 1978 to present. The fighter didn’t see actual combat until the Gulf of Sidra incident in 1981 when 2 F-14’s engaged 2 Su-22’s and destroyed them easily. While never participating in large aerial battles, the Tomcat boasts a modest combat record with 135 air to air kills, most of which are from the Iran-Iraq War, 4 air to air losses, and 4 losses due to ground fire.

Although it has been retired by the US, it’s still in service with the Iranian air force. But due to numerous sanctions they are unable to import replacement parts leaving them with 60 (allegedly) Tomcats left, most of which are probably unfit for combat.

Number Built: 712

Unit Cost: $38,000,000 (1998)

                                                                            

General characteristics:

  • Crew: 2 (Pilot and Radar Intercept Officer)
  • Length: 62 ft 9 in (19.1 m)
  • Wingspan:
    • Spread: 64 ft (19.55 m)
    • Swept: 38 ft (11.58 m)
  • Height: 16 ft (4.88 m)
  • Wing area: 565 ft² (54.5 m²)
  • Airfoil: NACA 64A209.65 mod root, 64A208.91 mod tip
  • Empty weight: 43,735 lb (19,838 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 61,000 lb (27,700 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 74,350 lb (33,720 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F110-GE-400 afterburning turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 13,810 lbf (61.4 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 27,800 lbf (123.7 kN) each
  • Maximum fuel capacity: 16,200 lb internal; 20,000 lb with 2x 267 gallon external tanks

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.34 (1,544 mph, 2,485 km/h) at high altitude
  • Combat radius: 500 nmi (575 mi, 926 km)
  • Ferry range: 1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km)
  • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,200 m)
  • Rate of climb: >45,000 ft/min (229 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 113.4 lb/ft² (553.9 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.91